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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 12, 2011

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Pre-injury polypharmacy as a predictor of outcomes in trauma patients
David C Evans, Anthony T Gerlach, Jonathan M Christy, Amy M Jarvis, David E Lindsey, Melissa L Whitmill, Daniel Eiferman, Claire V Murphy, Charles H Cook, Paul R Beery II, Steven M Steinberg, Stanislaw PA Stawicki
July-December 2011, 1(2):104-109
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84793  PMID:22229132
Background: One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the improving management of chronic health conditions. Long-term control of chronic disease entails increasing utilization of multiple medications and resultant polypharmacy. The goal of this study is to improve our understanding of the impact of polypharmacy on outcomes in trauma patients 45 years and older. Materials and Methods: Patients of age ≥45 years were identified from a Level I trauma center institutional registry. Detailed review of patient records included the following variables: Home medications, comorbid conditions, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), morbidity, mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, functional outcome measures (FOM), and discharge destination. Polypharmacy was defined by the number of medications: 0-4 (minor), 5-9 (major), or ≥10 (severe). Age- and ISS-adjusted analysis of variance and multivariate analyses were performed for these groups. Comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS) was defined as the number of pre-admission medications plus comorbidities. Statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05. Results: A total of 323 patients were examined (mean age 62.3 years, 56.1% males, median ISS 9). Study patients were using an average of 4.74 pre-injury medications, with the number of medications per patient increasing from 3.39 for the 45-54 years age group to 5.68 for the 75+ year age group. Age- and ISS-adjusted mortality was similar in the three polypharmacy groups. In multivariate analysis only age and ISS were independently predictive of mortality. Increasing polypharmacy was associated with more comorbidities, lower arrival GCS, more complications, and lower FOM scores for self-feeding and expression-communication. In addition, hospital and ICU LOS were longer for patients with severe polypharmacy. Multivariate analysis shows age, female gender, total number of injuries, number of complications, and CPS are independently associated with discharge to a facility (all, P < 0.02). Conclusion: Over 40% of trauma patients 45 years and older were receiving 5 or more medications at the time of their injury. Although these patients do not appear to have higher mortality, they are at increased risk for complications, lower functional outcomes, and longer hospital and intensive care stays. CPS may be useful when quantifying the severity of associated comorbid conditions in the context of traumatic injury and warrants further investigation.
  19 6,515 133
Cultural and religious aspects of palliative care
Steven M Steinberg
July-December 2011, 1(2):154-156
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84804  PMID:22229141
For most clinicians and patients, the discussion of palliative care is a difficult topic. It is complicated by both the clinician's and patient's belief systems, which are frequently heavily influenced by cultural and religious upbringing. This article discusses the impact of some of those differences on attitudes toward end of life decisions. Several different religions and cultures have been evaluated for their impact on perceptions of palliative care and the authors will share some examples.
  13 3,814 127
Gossypiboma, a rare cause of acute abdomen: A case report and review of literature
Indu Lata, Deepa Kapoor, Sandeep Sahu
July-December 2011, 1(2):157-160
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84805  PMID:22229142
Gossypiboma or textiloma is used to describe a retained surgical swab in the body after an operation. Inadvertent retention of a foreign body in the abdomen often requires another surgery. This increases morbidity and mortality of the patient, cost of treatment, and medicolegal problems. We are reporting case of a 45-year-old woman who was referred from periphery with acute pain in abdomen. She had a surgical history of abdominal hysterectomy 3 years back, performed at another hospital. On clinical examination and investigation, twisted ovarian cyst was suspected. That is a cystic mass further confirmed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT). During laparotomy, the cyst wall was opened incidentally which lead to the drainage of a large amount of dense pus. In between pus, there was found retained surgical gauze that confirmed the diagnosis of gossypiboma.
  11 5,436 247
Advance directives in the trauma intensive care unit: Do they really matter?
Stephanie Gordy, Eran Klein
July-December 2011, 1(2):132-137
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84800  PMID:22229138
Despite advances in the care of the injured patient, 22% of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit will die from their injuries. As a majority of these deaths will occur due to withdrawal of care, intensivists should be proficient in their ability to discuss end-of-life care with patients and families. While the use of advance directives to document patients' wishes has increased, their utility is uncertain. We review the effectiveness and obstacles of advance directives.
  10 4,020 87
An overview of end-of-life issues in the intensive care unit
Thomas J Papadimos, Yasdet Maldonado, Ravi S Tripathi, Deven S Kothari, Andrew L Rosenberg
July-December 2011, 1(2):138-146
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84801  PMID:22229139
The population of the earth is aging, and as medical techniques, pharmaceuticals, and devices push the boundaries of human physiological capabilities, more humans will go on to live longer. However, this prolonged existence may involve incapacities, particularly at the end-of-life, and especially in the intensive care unit. This arena involves not only patients and families, but also care givers. It involves topics from economics to existentialism, and surgery to spiritualism. It requires education, communication, acceptance of diversity, and an ultimate acquiescence to the inevitable. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of issues in the care of patients at the end-of-life stage that may cause physicians and other healthcare providers, medical, ethical, social, and philosophical concerns in the intensive care unit.
  9 4,943 178
Palliative critical care in the intensive care unit: A 2011 perspective
Michael D Adolph, Kimberly A Frier, Stanislaw PA Stawicki, Anthony T Gerlach, Thomas J Papadimos
July-December 2011, 1(2):147-153
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84803  PMID:22229140
Pain relief and palliative care play an increasingly important role in the overall approach to critically ill and injured patients. Despite significant progress in clinical patient care, our understanding of death and the dying process remains limited. For various reasons, people tend to delay facing questions associated with end-of-life, and the fear of the unknown often creates an environment of avoidance and an atmosphere of taboo. The topic of end-of-life care is multifaceted. It incorporates medical, ethical, spiritual, and religious aspects, among many others. Our ability to sustain the lives of the critically ill may be complicated by continuing life support in medically futile scenarios. This article, as well as the remainder of the IJCIIS Symposium on End-of-Life in Trauma/Intensive Care Unit, will explore the most important issues in the field of modern end-of-life care and palliative medicine, with a focus on critically ill and injured patients.
  9 4,219 185
Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation
Andrew P Jacques, Eric J Adkins, Sheri Knepel, Creagh Boulger, Jessica Miller, David P Bahner
July-December 2011, 1(2):121-124
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84796  PMID:22229135
Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice.
  9 3,834 167
End of life in the Burn/Trauma unit: A nursing perspective
Rebecca Coffey, Sherman Everett, Sidney Miller, Jacqueline Brown
July-December 2011, 1(2):129-131
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84799  PMID:22229137
The issues related to end of life decisions and mortality in the intensive care unit are common occurrences for the nursing staff. For the Critical Care/Burn nurse, issues such as who should be resuscitated, what are the end points of treatment, and what will be the quality of life for the patient if he/she survives are major factors in end of life decisions. Furthermore, the close relationships that can develop between the nurse and the patient and/or the patient's family make end of life decisions emotionally difficult. Unlike the other members of the multidisciplinary team, the nurses spend more time with the dying patient and his/her family, answering questions, explaining the care and course of the illness, and assisting the patient and family in understanding what the doctors have said. Repeated explanations are needed because the family and patient are under tremendous stress. Nurses experience emotional distress and need to develop resilience to continue to care for and work with patients approaching the end stages of life. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the literature and use a case scenario to illustrate the challenges the Critical Care/Burn nurse faces when caring for the dying patient.
  7 3,107 104
The stunned atrial lead: Transient malfunction of a permanent atrial pacer lead following acute myocardial infarction
Shailendra Upadhyay, Stephen Marshalko, Craig McPherson
July-December 2011, 1(2):161-163
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84806  PMID:22229143
Proximal right coronary artery occlusion caused transient loss of sensing and capture of the atrial lead of a permanent dual-chamber pacemaker. Forty-five days after percutaneous revascularization, the atrial lead was discovered to be functioning normally. We hypothesize that ischemia of the right atrium caused stunning of the atrial myocardium at the pacer-lead interface, which gradually improved following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), leading to return of lead function over time. So far only one similar case has been described in the literature.
  5 3,898 76
Hepatoprotective effects of select water-soluble PARP inhibitors in a carbon tetrachloride model
James D McCluskey, Dmytro Sava, Stephen C Harbison, Carlos A Muro-Cacho, Johnson T Giffe, Xu Ping, Raymond D Harbison
July-December 2011, 1(2):97-103
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84788  PMID:22229131
Background: Inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) have been demonstrated to attenuate pathophysiologic conditions associated with oxidative stress, specifically with carbon tetrachloride (CT)-induced hepatotoxicity. Settings and Design: In this investigation, we evaluated 3 previously untested water-soluble PARP-1 inhibitors, namely, 3-aminobenzamide (ABA), 5-aminoisoquinolinone (AIQ), and N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide HCl (PJ-34) to determine their efficacy in blocking or attenuating CT-induced hepatotoxicity in male imprinting control region (ICR) mice. Statistical Analysis: Indicators of hepatotoxicity were compared with F-tests among groups to determine statistically significant effects. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between PARP inhibition and the attenuation of hepatotoxicity. Results and Conclusions: CT treatment resulted in hepatic cytotoxicity, increased serum transaminase (ALT), lipid peroxidation (MDA), intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion, increased carbonyl content, and substantially increased PARP-1 activity. CT treatment also produced profound observable hemorrhagic necrosis in the hepatic centrilobular region of ICR mice. Pretreatment with PJ-34, ABA, and AIQ before CT treatment significantly decreased PARP-1 activity in hepatocytes after CT treatment by 3.4, 2.0, and 1.9 times, respectively. Corresponding to this reduction in PARP-1 activity, a significant reduction in the ALT levels and MDA and a reduction in the GSH depletion were observed. Also, there were no visible tissue defects in the liver samples from animals pretreated with individual PARP-1 inhibitors before CT administration. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the 3 previously untested water-soluble PARP-1 inhibitors in attenuating CT-induced hepatocellular toxicity and further characterize the role of PARP-1 activation and oxidative stress among the cascade of events in hepatocellular necrosis induced by CT treatment.
  4 4,429 124
Perforation of right ventricle with cardiac tamponade following pacemaker implantation
Luciano Santana-Cabrera, Guillermo Pérez-Acosta, Raquel Manzanedo-Velasco, Manuel Sánchez-Palacios
July-December 2011, 1(2):169-170
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84810  PMID:22229147
  2 2,840 74
Resource utilization in the management of traumatic brain injury patients in a critical care unit: An audit from rural setup of a developing country
Amit Agrawal, Dilip Gode, Anand Kakani, Manda Nagrale, Syed Zahiruddin Quazi, Abhay Gaidhane, Parvez Shaikh
July-December 2011, 1(2):110-113
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84794  PMID:22229133
Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are steadily increasing and are a major cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly in the young population, leading to the loss of life and productivity in the developing countries. Providing critical care to these patients with TBI is a challenge even in well-advanced centers in major cities of India. In the present study, we describe our experience of resource utilization in the management of TBI in a critical care unit (CCU) from a rural setup. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients who were admitted from January 2007 to December 2009 in the CCU for the management of traumatic brain injury were included in the study. The case records of the patients were reviewed retrospectively, and data were collected on age, gender, severity of head injury, associated injuries, total CCU stay, total hospital stay, and outcome. Results: The total duration (days) of hospital stay was 8.96±6.16 days and a median of 8 days, and CCU stay was 3.77±6.34 days with a median of 2 days. No deaths occurred with mild head injury. A total of 73 (19.16%) deaths occurred in 381 admitted subjects in CCU. The risk of death among both the sexes is not significantly different, that is, odds ratio (OR) 1.032 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.351-3.03], so also the risk of death among the different age groups is also not significant having OR, 0.978 (95% CI, 0.954-1.00). The severity of head injury (mild, moderate, and severe) and CCU stay parameters had significant difference with risk of death [OR, 3.22 (95% CI, 2.49-4.16) and OR, 2.50 (95% CI, 1.9-3.2)]. Conclusions: Apparently it seems possible to use the existing health care structures in rural areas to improve trauma care. It becomes particularly relevant in poor resource, developing countries, where health care facilities and access to specialized care units are still far below the acceptable standard, there is a need to compare with the reference group to further support the evidence.
  2 2,958 128
A comparison between two different alveolar recruitment maneuvers in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Khaled M Mahmoud, Amany S Ammar
July-December 2011, 1(2):114-120
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84795  PMID:22229134
Background: Alveolar recruitment is a physiological process that denotes the reopening of previously gasless lung units exposed to positive pressure ventilation. The current study was aimed to compare two recruitment maneuvers, a high continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and an extended sigh in patients with ARDS. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were randomly divided into two groups, 20 patients each. Group I received a CPAP of 40 cmH 2 O for 40 seconds and group II received extended sigh (providing a sufficient recruiting pressure Χ time). In our study, we assessed the effects of both recruitment maneuvers on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and hemodynamics. These data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Student--Newman--Keuls post hoc comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Both methods improved the compliance, increased arterial oxygenation (PaO 2 ), increased the PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, and reduced the pulmonary shunt fraction (Q s/Q t). However, the extended sigh improved both PaO 2 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios more than continuous positive airway pressure. Also the hemodynamic parameters were better maintained during the extended sigh. Conclusion: Alveolar recruitment maneuvers are effective in management of mechanically ventilated ARDS patients. We conclude that extended sigh is more effective than continuous positive airway pressure as a recruitment maneuver.
  2 5,295 440
Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption with evisceration
Ellen McDaniel, Stanislaw PA Stawicki, David P Bahner
July-December 2011, 1(2):164-166
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84807  PMID:22229144
Blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruptions associated with evisceration are very rare. The authors describe a case of traumatic abdominal wall disruption with bowel evisceration that occurred after a middle-aged woman sustained direct focal blunt force impact to the lower abdomen. Abdominal exploration and surgical repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed, with good clinical outcome. A brief overview of literature pertinent to this rare trauma scenario is presented.
  1 7,498 112
Cavernous sinus thrombosis following bee sting
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Namasivayam Balamurugan, Shah Sweni, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
July-December 2011, 1(2):167-168
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84808  PMID:22229145
  1 1,806 106
ECMO and endogenous carboxyhemoglobin formation
Ravi S Tripathi, Thomas J Papadimos
July-December 2011, 1(2):168-168
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84809  PMID:22229146
  1 1,953 86
The death of Ivan Ilych: A blueprint for intervention at the end of life
Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw PA Stawicki
July-December 2011, 1(2):125-128
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84798  PMID:22229136
Medical practice and the field of humanities frequently intersect. It is uncanny how problems presented or described in literature that are several hundred years old still present themselves to us on a regular basis. Often, our answers to these dilemmas are not perfect, but we continue our attempts at providing solutions through an enlightened evolution of our thought and approaches. Leo Tolstoy's novella, The Death of Ivan Ilych, is a classic piece of literature that allows a view of the dying process in an ordinary human being, and presents us with an opportunity to observe, not only the intersection of medicine and humanities, but also that of critical care and palliative medicine. Here Tolstoy, through his keen observation of the human condition at the end of life, allows us an opportunity to view a 19 th century perspective that has an all too familiar persistence that needs a 21 st century intervention.
  1 3,628 84
What's new in critical illness and injury science? Managing acute respiratory distress syndrome is still a challenge
Abubakr A Bajwa, James D Cury
July-December 2011, 1(2):95-96
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84787  PMID:22229130
  - 2,245 128
Ultrasonography-guided peripheral intravenous catheter in emergency department patients with difficult access
Luciano Santana-Cabrera, Guillermo Pérez-Acosta, Sergio Martínez-Cuéllar, Manuel Sánchez-Palacios
July-December 2011, 1(2):170-171
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.84812  PMID:22229148
  - 2,162 82