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   2016| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 8, 2016

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Early high ratio platelet transfusion in trauma resuscitation and its outcomes
Ruben Peralta, Adarsh Vijay, Ayman El-Menyar, Rafael Consunji, Ibrahim Afifi, Ismail Mahmood, Mohammed Asim, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani
October-December 2016, 6(4):188-193
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195448  PMID:28149824
Introduction: The optimal ratio of platelets (PLTs) to packed red blood cell (PRBC) in trauma patients requiring massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is still controversial. This report aims to describe the effect of attaining a high PLT:PRBC ratio (≥1:1.5) within 4 h postinjury on the outcomes of trauma patients receiving MTP. Methods: Over a 24-month period, records of all adult patients with traumatic injury who received MTP were retrospectively reviewed. Data were analyzed with respect to PLT:PRBC ratio ([high-MTP ≥1:1.5] [HMTP] vs. [low-MTP <1:1.5] [LMTP]) given within the first 4 h postinjury and also between (>4 and 24 h). Baseline demographic, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes were compared according to HMTP and LMTP. Results: Of the total 3244 trauma patients, PLT:PRBC ratio was attainable in 58 (1.2%) patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 32.3 ± 10.7 years; the majority were males (89.6%) with high mean Injury Severity Score (ISS): 31.9 ± 11.5 and Revise Trauma Score (RTS): 5.1 ± 2.2. There was no significant association between age, gender, type of injury, presenting hemoglobin, International Normalized Ratio, ISS, and RTS. The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (38.9% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.02) and wound infection (50% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.002) were significantly higher in the HMTP group. However, HMTP was associated with lower rate of multiple organ failure (MOF) (42.1% vs. 87.2%, P = 0.001) and mortality (36.8% vs. 84.6%, P = 0.001) within the first 30 days postinjury. Conclusions: Our study revealed that early attainment of high PLT/PRBC ratio within 4 h postinjury is significantly associated with lower MOF and mortality in trauma patients.
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Correlations between pulmonary artery pressures and inferior vena cava collapsibility in critically ill surgical patients: An exploratory study
Stanislaw P Stawicki, Thomas J Papadimos, David P Bahner, David C Evans, Christian Jones
October-December 2016, 6(4):194-199
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195449  PMID:28149825
Introduction: As pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) use declines, search continues for reliable and readily accessible minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring alternatives. Although the correlation between inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI) and central venous pressures (CVP) has been described previously, little information exists regarding the relationship between IVC-CI and pulmonary artery pressures (PAPs). The goal of this study is to bridge this important knowledge gap. We hypothesized that there would be an inverse correlation between IVC-CI and PAPs. Methods: A post hoc analysis of prospectively collected hemodynamic data was performed, examining correlations between IVC-CI and PAPs in a convenience sample of adult Surgical Intensive Care Unit patients. Concurrent measurements of IVC-CI and pulmonary arterial systolic (PAS), pulmonary arterial diastolic (PAD), and pulmonary arterial mean (PAM) pressures were performed. IVC-CI was calculated as ([IVC max − IVC min]/IVC max) × 100%. Vena cava measurements were obtained by ultrasound-credentialed providers. For the purpose of correlative analysis, PAP measurements (PAS, PAD, and PAM) were grouped by terciles while the IVC-CI spectrum was divided into thirds (<33, 33-65, ≥66). Results: Data from 34 patients (12 women, 22 men, with median age of 59.5 years) were analyzed. Median Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 9. A total of 76 measurement pairs were recorded, with 57% (43/76) obtained in mechanically ventilated patients. Correlations between IVC-CI and PAS (rs = −0.334), PAD (rs = −0.305), and PAM (rs = −0.329) were poor. Correlations were higher between CVP and PAS (R2 = 0.61), PAD (R2 = 0.68), and PAM (R2 = 0.70). High IVC-CI values (≥66%) consistently correlated with measurements in the lowest PAP ranges. Across all PAP groups (PAS, PAD, and PAM), there were no differences between the mean measurement values for the lower and middle IVC-CI ranges (0%-65%). However, all three groups had significantly lower mean measurement values for the ≥66% IVC-CI group. Conclusions: Low PAS, PAD, and PAM measurements show a reasonable correlation with high IVC-CI (≥66%). These findings are consistent with previous descriptions of the relationship between IVC-CI and CVP. Additional research in this area is warranted to better describe the hemodynamic relationship between IVC-CI and PAPs, with the goal of further reduction in the reliance on the use of PACs.
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Usefulness of full outline of unresponsiveness score to predict extubation failure in intubated critically-ill patients: A pilot study
Tarek Said, Anis Chaari, Karim Abdel Hakim, Dalia Hamama, William Francis Casey
October-December 2016, 6(4):172-177
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195401  PMID:28149821
Objective: To assess the usefulness of the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score in predicting extubation failure in critically ill intubated patients admitted with disturbed level of conscious in comparison with the Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Patients and Methods: All intubated critically ill patients with a disturbed level of consciousness were assessed using both the FOUR score and the GCS. The FOUR score and the GCS were compared regarding their predictive value for successful extubation at 14 days after intubation as a primary outcome measure. The 28-day mortality and the neurological outcome at 3 months were used as secondary outcome measures. Results : Eighty-six patients were included in the study. Median age was 63 (50-77) years. Sex-ratio (M/F) was 1.46. On admission, median GCS was 7 (3-10) while median FOUR score was 8.5 (2.3-11). A GCS ≤ 7 predicted the extubation failure at 14 days after intubation with a sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 68.3%, whereas a FOUR score <10 predicted the same outcome with a sensitivity of 80.8% and a specificity of 81.7%. The areas under the curves was significantly higher with the FOUR score than with GCS (respectively 0.867 confidence interval [CI]: 95% [0790-0.944] and 0.832 CI: 95% [0.741-0.923]; P = 0.014). When calculated before extubation, FOUR score <12 predicted extubation failure with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 85%, whereas a GCS <12 predicted the same outcome with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 61.7%. Both scores had similar accuracy for predicting 28-day mortality and neurological outcome at 3 months. Conclusion: The FOUR score is superior to the GCS for the prediction of successful extubation of intubated critically ill patients.
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Effect of training problem-solving skill on decision-making and critical thinking of personnel at medical emergencies
Mohammad Heidari, Sara Shahbazi
October-December 2016, 6(4):182-187
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195445  PMID:28149823
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of problem-solving training on decision-making skill and critical thinking in emergency medical personnel. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study that performed in 95 emergency medical personnel in two groups of control (48) and experimental (47). Then, a short problem-solving course based on 8 sessions of 2 h during the term, was performed for the experimental group. Of data gathering was used demographic and researcher made decision-making and California critical thinking skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The finding revealed that decision-making and critical thinking score in emergency medical personnel are low and problem-solving course, positively affected the personnel' decision-making skill and critical thinking after the educational program (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, this kind of education on problem-solving in various emergency medicine domains such as education, research, and management, is recommended.
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The importance of chest X-ray during nasogastric tube insertion
Mahir Gachabayov, Kubach Kubachev, Dmitriy Neronov
October-December 2016, 6(4):211-212
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195453  PMID:28149829
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A profile of metabolic acidosis in patients with sepsis in an Intensive Care Unit setting
Kartik Ganesh, RN Sharma, Jaicob Varghese, M. G. K. Pillai
October-December 2016, 6(4):178-181
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195417  PMID:28149822
Context: Metabolic acidosis is frequently found in patients with severe sepsis. An understanding of types of acidosis in sepsis and their evolution over the course of treatment may give us insight into the behavior of acid-base balance in these patients. Aims: To describe at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and over the first 5 days the composition of metabolic acidosis in patients with sepsis and to evaluate and compare acidosis patterns in survivors and nonsurvivors. Settings and Design: A prospective study conducted at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, in the Department of Internal Medicine. Subjects and Methods: Seventy-five consecutive patients admitted in the medical ICU with sepsis and metabolic acidosis were assessed. Arterial blood gas and serum electrolytes were measured during the first five days of admission or until death, renal replacement or discharge supervened. Statistical Analysis: To test the statistical significance of the difference in mean values of different study variables at day 1 and last day between survivors and non survivors, Mann-Whitney U-test was applied. To test the statistical significance of the difference in mean changes in different study parameters from day 1 to last day, paired t-test was done in the survivor group and Mann-Whitney U-test in the non survivor group. Results: Regardless of survival status, on day 1 of admission, 37 had High Anion Gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA), 21 had predominant lactic acidosis (LA), 8 had Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (NAGMA), and 9 had both HAGMA and LA [Figure 1]. When we compared this to the last day, 25 had HAGMA, 3 had LA, 3 had both HAGMA and LA, and 22 patients had resolution of acidosis. Sixty-four patients survived for up to 5 days of admission. Fifteen of these patients underwent hemodialysis on the day of admission itself in view of HAGMA. The remaining 49 comprised of HAGMA (31), Lactic acidosis (12), and a combination (6) on day 1. On the last day in this group, 25 had HAGMA, 2 had LA, and 22 patients had resolution of acidosis. In survivors, over the observation period, changes seen were: mean pH: 7.25-7.34 (P < 0.001), mean serum bicarbonate: 13.9 mEq to 17.2 mEq (P < 0.001), and mean serum lactate: 3.18-1.9 (P = 0.002). The changes in serum albumin and pCO 2 were not significant. Eleven patients in the study population succumbed. Seven patients underwent hemodialysis on day 1 and the remaining four were followed up for more than 1 day. On day 1, 7 had lactic acidosis and 5 had HAGMA. Over the observation period, changes seen were mean pH: 7.15-7.14, mean serum lactate: 6.3-7.3 mEq. Conclusions: In patients with sepsis and septic shock, high anion gap metabolic acidosis is the dominant blood gas anomaly. Fall in lactate levels over the first 5 days of admission is a good prognostic marker of survival. Evolution of the blood gas profile over time suggests that a fall in lactate levels and a rise in bicarbonate levels correlate with a better outcome. The role of the anion gap as a prognostic marker holds promise and further studies are needed in this regard.
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Firearm injury in a child: An uncommon case of penile trauma
Mustafa Erman Dorterler, Mehmet Emin Boleken
October-December 2016, 6(4):200-202
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195450  PMID:28149826
Genitourinary system injuries generally occur due to blunt and penetrating trauma. Approximately 10% of all injuries encountered in the emergency department are related to the genitourinary system. Male genital trauma is a urological emergency because of the high risk of infection and the priority of protecting the sexual, endocrine, and reproductive functions. Blunt injuries to the penis are more often seen due to the mobility and localization of the penis than due to penetrating injuries caused by firearms or cutting instruments. We aimed to present and discuss a case involving shrapnel that became lodged in the penis of a child in a war zone. After 2 weeks of medical treatment, the patient underwent surgery. Surgery includes primary repair to the penis and urethra.
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A case of rapid progression of postoperative hyperthermia: Dantrolene or not dilemma?
Marzieh R Honardar, Jesus Rubio, Sanjay M Bhananker
October-December 2016, 6(4):203-205
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195451  PMID:28149827
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an extremely rare and life-threatening differential diagnosis of postoperative fever. We present an 8-month-old child scheduled for elective outpatient procedure who rapidly developed high fever, tachycardia, and respiratory acidosis shortly after transfer to the postanesthesia care unit. MH hotline expert recommended administering dantrolene, but there was no evidence of hypermetabolism or lactic acidosis. The patient remained clinically stable after admission to the pediatric intensive care unit and was discharged home the next day. The fever was likely due to viral infections as confirmed by a positive result of viral polymerase chain reaction for human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus/enterovirus.
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Clinically providing psycho-social care for caregivers in emergency and trauma care setting: Scope for medical and psychiatric social workers
Birudu Raju, Suresh Lukose, Prabu Raj, Krishna Reddy
October-December 2016, 6(4):206-210
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195452  PMID:28149828
Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in young people. TBI is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and socioeconomic loss, especially in developing countries such as India. It is creating damage to the psychosocial well-being of caregiver and their family members significantly. Caregivers' informational, educational, psychosocial problems are still overlooked and unaddressed. Providing psychosocial interventions such as educating caregivers about TBI-related consequences, increasing social support, mobilization of resources for the needy, and dealing with psychological stress will be beneficial to reduce the caregiver burden. Medical and psychiatric social workers (MPSWs) have important role in providing psychosocial care and decreasing caregiver burden of TBI survivors. This case report highlights the role of MPSWs in the emergency and trauma care setting.
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What's New in Critical Illness and Injury Science? Coagulants for local application in the surgical armamentarium!
Shilpa Sharma
October-December 2016, 6(4):161-162
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195388  PMID:28149817
  - 1,720 76
What's New in Critical Illness and Injury Science? Extubation Failure Predictors for 2016
Hassen Ben-Ghezala
October-December 2016, 6(4):163-164
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195391  PMID:28149818
  - 1,418 80
The importance of identifying patients at risk of dexmedetomidine-associated hypotension
Bethany Malone, Michael S Firstenberg
October-December 2016, 6(4):165-166
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195393  PMID:28149819
  - 1,350 122
Comparison of the hemostatic effects of oxidized cellulose and calcium alginate in an experimental animal model of hepatic parenchymal bleeding
Mustafa Erman Dorterler, Harun Resit Ayangil, Cüneyt Turan, Kemal Deniz
October-December 2016, 6(4):167-171
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.195397  PMID:28149820
Background: Despite all recent developments, bleeding is still one of the main causes of increasing morbidity and mortality following both trauma and elective hepatic surgery. The main goal of treatment is stop the bleeding immediately. In this study, the hemostatic and histopathological effects of Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), oxidized cellulose (OC), and calcium alginate (CA) were compared in an experimental liver injury. Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each, receiving 0.9% NaCl, CA, OC, or ABS following liver resection. After 5 days, the samples from the resection site were acquired for histopathological evaluation. The efficacy of the agents was assessed using the hematocrit level and histopathological examination. Statistical analyses were applied. Results: The amount of bleeding was lowest in ABS-treated rats, followed by those treated with OC, CA, and NaCl, respectively. The difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). ABS-treated rats also had significantly less necrosis than those receiving OC; other differences in this regard were not significant. Inflammatory status was significantly different between OC- and CA-treated rats (P < 0.05) but not among the other groups (P > 0.05). No significant difference was determined between the groups regarding granulation (P > 0.05). Conclusion : ABS reduced the volume of bleeding in liver surgery and partial liver resection. The hemostatic effect of CA was limited.
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