Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 858


Home  | About Us | Editors | Search | Ahead Of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Submit Article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 

Table of Contents
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 169-170

Perforation of right ventricle with cardiac tamponade following pacemaker implantation

Intensive Care Unit, Universitary Hospital Insular in Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Date of Web Publication12-Sep-2011

Correspondence Address:
Luciano Santana-Cabrera
Avenida Marítima del Sur s/n. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, 35016
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-5151.84810

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Santana-Cabrera L, Pérez-Acosta G, Manzanedo-Velasco R, Sánchez-Palacios M. Perforation of right ventricle with cardiac tamponade following pacemaker implantation. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2011;1:169-70

How to cite this URL:
Santana-Cabrera L, Pérez-Acosta G, Manzanedo-Velasco R, Sánchez-Palacios M. Perforation of right ventricle with cardiac tamponade following pacemaker implantation. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Mar 30];1:169-70. Available from: https://www.ijciis.org/text.asp?2011/1/2/169/84810


Right ventricular rupture resulting from pacemaker implantation is a critical cardiac complication associated with cardiac tamponade and death. It is usually at the time of lead insertion. This condition requires urgent recognition since the prompt drainage of the pericardial fluid may be lifesaving. We report a case of cardiac tamponade that resulted from pacemaker implantation.

A transitory pacemaker was implanted to 72 years old female, before carrying out a valvuloplasty by a severe Aortic stenosis (peak gradient 100 mmHg and mean gradient 70 mmHg). After carrying out the valvuloplastia with a successful result (gradient reduction of 50%) the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for monitoring, 30 min later she suffered arterial hypotension, requiring inotropic support, and the central venous pressure increased from 12 to 20 mmHg. With the suspicion of a cardiac tamponade, a transthoracic echocardiography was carried out, detecting a pericardial effusion of 20 mm with commitment of diastolic filling [Figure 1]. Pericardial drainage was carried out and the patient was taken to the operating room practicing an urgent thoracotomy, during which she suffered a cardiac arrest, so cardiopulmonary reanimation maneuvers were carried out. During surgery, through left thoracotomy, two myocardial perforation spots were observed in the apical wall of the right ventricle, which were sutured [Figure 2]. Patient died despite emergency surgery by refractory shock.
Figure 1: Transthoracic echocardiography: pericardial effusion of 20 mm with commitment of diastolic fi lling

Click here to view
Figure 2: Two myocardial perforation spots observed in the apical wall of the right ventricle

Click here to view

Acute complications resulting from permanent pacemaker implantation are well known and include perforation of the right atrium or right ventricle. Recently, several reports have described the occurrence of perforation and pericarditis as late complications following pacemaker implantation. These complications may occur days to weeks following uncomplicated pacemaker implantation and may lead to death if they are not recognized early. [1],[2] A review of the literature revealed that cardiac tamponade is a rare complication of pacemaker implantation, we should be aware of possible complications and be prepared to treat them. [3]

Real-time echocardiography and color Doppler provide excellent visualization of right ventricular rupture. Occasionally, the site of rupture may be contained by the parietal pericardium and thrombus, thus forming a pseudoaneurysm. [4]

The fragility of the myocardium in the elderly is considered to be a major reason for this complication which may occur despite the use of flexible electrodes and correct technique. [5] A higher clinical suspicion should be maintained in the elderly in whom perforation occurs more frequently.

   References Top

1.Foo NP, Lin HJ. Delayed perforation of right ventricle with cardiac tamponade: A complication of pacemaker implantation. Eur J Emerg Med 2005;12:89-91.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Barriales Alvarez V, Alvarez Tamargo JA, García Aguado M, Martín Fernández M, Morales C. Delayed myocardial perforation following pacemaker implantation. Int J Cardiol 2004;93:89-91.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Trigano JA, Paganelli F, Ricard P, Ferracci A, Avierinos JF, Lévy S. Heart perforation following transvenous implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. Presse Med 1999;28:836-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Shen X, Holmberg MJ, Sype J, Hunter C, Mooss AN, Mohiuddin SM. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in diagnosis of right ventricular pseudoaneurysm after pacemaker implantation. Echocardiography 2006;23:240-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Smith JA, Tatoulis J. Right atrial perforation by a temporary epicardial pacing wire. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;50:141-2.  Back to cited text no. 5


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Echocardiographic approach to cardiac tamponade in critically ill patients
Peter McCanny,Frances Colreavy
Journal of Critical Care. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 ¿En dónde está el electrodo?
William Fernando Bautista-Vargas,Luis Carlos Sáenz-Morales,Diego Andrés Rodríguez-Guerrero
Revista Colombiana de Cardiología. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded78    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal