Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Users Online: 96

 

Home  | About Us | Editors | Search | Ahead Of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Submit Article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Login 
     


 
 
Table of Contents
EDITORIAL
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 105-108

What's new in critical illness and injury science? In situ simulation for airway management during COVID-19 in the emergency department, KMC, Manipal


1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Research and Innovation, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA
3 Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
4 Department of Emergency Medicine, Florida State University, Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Sarasota, Florida, USA

Date of Submission15-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication22-Sep-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vimal S Krishnan
Department of Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_114_20

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Sanjan A, Krishnan VS, Balakrishnan JM, Stawicki SP, Sirur FM, Lateef F, Goncalves RV, Galwankar S. What's new in critical illness and injury science? In situ simulation for airway management during COVID-19 in the emergency department, KMC, Manipal. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2020;10:105-8

How to cite this URL:
Sanjan A, Krishnan VS, Balakrishnan JM, Stawicki SP, Sirur FM, Lateef F, Goncalves RV, Galwankar S. What's new in critical illness and injury science? In situ simulation for airway management during COVID-19 in the emergency department, KMC, Manipal. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Nov 28];10:105-8. Available from: https://www.ijciis.org/text.asp?2020/10/3/105/295774




   Introduction Top


As many locations around the world pass through or emerge from the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, lessons learned are being collected, analyzed, and implemented across clinics, hospitals, and health systems.[1],[2] The toll on health-care providers (HCPs), both physical and psychological, has been tremendous.[2],[3] The prospect of contracting the illness while providing care to those who are acutely ill, combined with the repeated sight of death and suffering, creates a significant psychological burden on frontline personnel.[4],[5],[6] There is also growing recognition that many HCPs were simply unprepared for what they had to see, process, and cope with. Experiences from previous epidemics suggest that there is a significant associated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder.[7]

Many of the same health-care professionals will still be working on the frontline into the near-to-intermediate term, dealing with airway management of critically ill patients suffering from COVID-19, whether during the current or potential future waves of the disease.[1] It is crucial to ensure that HCPs have the tools, the education, the skills, as well as adequate levels of confidence to safely carry out critical high-risk procedures such as endotracheal intubation (ETI).[8],[9] The amount of aerosol generated during procedures like intubation poses a significant threat to HCPs battling pandemic.[10],[11] Of importance, there is also a relatively steep learning curve in terms of performing ETIs, while wearing full personal protective equipment is often modified “aerosol box” intubation settings.[12],[13],[14] Both the psychological and procedural aspects of ETI in COVID-19 patients can be addressed with proper airway management training and purposeful simulation, incorporating both cognitive and technical considerations.

The authors of this article see a pivotal role for simulation in preparing HCPs for high-pressure, high-risk work environments.[15],[16],[17] Accordingly, the development of the simulation process needs to be deliberate and appropriate structured so that it can make a difference by helping to improve systems and processes of patient care. As such, we have developed a methodical 10-step, streamlined simulation scenario (SSS) and checklist as a training tool to help to prepare trainees for COVID-19 intubations and minimize the risk of viral exposure. In this manuscript, we outline a simulation-based exercise in ETI for COVID-19 patients.


   Simulation Exercise Logistics and Structure Top


As in other simulations, critical to this exercise is the proper definition of roles and closed-loop communication between participating stakeholders.[18] The simulation package for ETI consists of several key elements including:

  • A 20-min video demonstration of the pre-recorded simulation with role-playing to support the facilitation of the exercise and its subsequent debriefing [Figure 1] (Video-Assisted Learning for Standardization)
  • A checklist to explain all the processes of the exercise
  • Debriefing and troubleshooting of the process
  • Psychological preparedness module to help “place the trainee” mentally in a high-risk, high-pressure environment ahead of any actual clinical ETI scenario takes place.
Figure 1: Image from the video that was used for training

Click here to view


The role and allocation of the team members involved in the intubation were preassigned [Table 1].
Table 1: The role and allocation of the team members involved in the intubation were preassigned

Click here to view


The in situ simulation was carried out in the simulation laboratory at the Department of Emergency Medicine (EM) during the general outbreak preparedness campaign at our institution. The EM team to prepare the SSS collated the inputs from the Hospital Infection Control Committee and Disaster Preparedness team. All the processes were critically observed and managed by two dedicated simulation staff – one experienced simulation manager (observer) outside the simulation room through a glass panel and one from within the room.

The sessions were conducted daily for all those who are likely to be involved in the airway management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients. A high-fidelity human patient simulator (SimMan®) was used to simulate a patient suffering from severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19, further complicated by hypotension, who presented to the emergency department. Within this general theme, four different clinical situations were utilized during SSS training, with consideration given to the estimated competency of the group. There were four teams based on the competencies of the team leader as follows: (in the order of least to most experienced).

  1. Resident <1-year experience
  2. Resident more than 1-year experience
  3. Junior consultant
  4. Senior consultant.


However, there were no significant changes in the sequence of ETI steps.


   Simulation Groups and Implementations Top


Each SSS group consisted of a 3-member ETI team. In all, we completed 14 individual simulations involving 56 participants (14 Team Leader (TL) and 42 Registered Nurse Registered Respiratory Therapist RN/RRT) [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Each SSS lasted between 45 min to 1 h. An additional 30–45 min time allocation was devoted to the prerecorded video [Figure 1] and post-SSS debriefing and troubleshooting session. Some of the components could be staggered if multiple groups participate in the exercise. Overall, it took nearly 2 h to train each group of trainees.
Figure 2: Training of the in-hospital residents, followed by a demonstration on the high-fidelity human patient simulator

Click here to view
Figure 3: Demonstration of the tracheal intubation by the trainees on the high-fidelity human patient simulator

Click here to view


Health-care workers involved in patient care during an acute infectious outbreak have reported severe psychological stress due to multiple factors, including fear of contracting and spreading the disease, witnessing the death in colleagues and family members. There are documented accounts of the same during the Ebola and SARS epidemic in different parts of the world.[19],[20],[21] There is a need to provide physical and emotional care to HCPs during an infectious epidemic/pandemic. It is also expected that HCPs may experience psychosomatic symptoms with the progression of time during such a crisis.[22] A personal focus area as one of the domains in crisis simulation that hinges on taking care of the well-being of HCPs is being highlighted more now. Psychological well-being is an important tenet which is gaining prominence in simulation exercises where, in addition to knowledge and skills, well-being of the learners is also taken into account.[23] One of the goals of our simulation exercise was to prepare the HCPs to work optimally in a high-stress, high-risk environment adhering to the principles of crisis resource management.[24]

Psychological safety during simulation-based learning

Psychological safety during simulation-based learning (SBL) can be even more critical than physical wellness. This is because in SBL, there is “performance” involved and learners can be more self-conscious among themselves. Thus, facilitators of these sessions need to have an “eagle eye” to observe even the slightest nuances from the learner's perspectives. They must be aware of these and also assist to nurture and urge participation in a neutral and nonthreatening way. Once learners feel comfortable, they may then start to share and talk more openly, for example, during debriefing. Being nonjudgmental is critical. Just one statement, which is offensive to one learner, can throw us back many steps. Thus, preparedness from the faculty and facilitators is important. Psychological wellness affects performance during SBL in a similar way stress does. Thus, the impact of making learners feel at ease must never be underestimated.

In Asia, culture plays an essential role as well. In general, Asian learners may tend to be less vocal, less confrontational, and may thus appear to be less participatory and quiet. Hierarchy plays a critical role as well, whereby respect for teachers and faculty is still something still held very strongly. Thus, for faculty working in cross-cultural settings, there is a need to be aware of this. Giving our learners second chances and opportunities are also important. At times, a more personalized approach may even be needed for someone who is extremely shy and fearful of “public speaking.”


   Additional Recommendations and Feedback Top


The intended participants of the SSS include all HCPs who may be called upon to provide airway management in the setting of a known or suspected COVID-19 patient. This includes clinicians from different areas and levels of training (faculty, residents of those specialties expected to provide airway management, RN, and RRT). Similar to other simulation exercises,[18] predesigned focused feedback rubric was used to debrief the participants at the end of each session. Feedback and suggestions were obtained from the participants to improve the subsequent implementation of knowledge and skills learned into individual clinical practice. After each debriefing and critical analysis, appropriate revisions were made in the guidelines and incorporated into subsequent SSS exercises. In all, our entire institutional team was able to be trained within 2 weeks.

The main goals of the simulation were defined as follows:[18],[25],[26],[27]

  • To improve the preparedness of TL, RN, RRT, and Infection Control Nurse (ICN) for managing suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 with “just-in-time training”
  • To focus on the rapid acquisition of skills through “mastery learning” to optimize both patient care and clinician safety
  • To disseminate key learning points to all members, including common errors observed in training, to avoid these in clinical practice
  • To examine the system and operational issues related to institutional infection control guidelines
  • To prepare HCPs for working sustainably in a high-stress, high-risk environment.



   Summary and Conclusions Top


As a response to occupational concerns over COVID-19 exposure risk, we chose to eliminate or minimize any perceived threats to provider safety. Thus, we implemented biosafety barrier devices that serve to reduce the risk of airborne virus transmission [Figure 4]. Following our institutional adoption of biosafety barrier devices, the training session was also modified accordingly. This included the incorporation of the use of the barrier devices into the SSS processes. The next steps in our evolving SSS implementation include the process of using and comparing different barrier devices in the simulated setting.
Figure 4: Emergency physician intubating with modified steps of intubation using the barrier device

Click here to view


In summary, we strongly recommend the in situ simulation methodology as a valuable tool to evaluate and improve the performance of frontline HCPs involved in the management of COVID-19. Repeated simulations appear useful, with new insights learned by exercise participants who may not have been aware of specific nuances without the active implementation of our iterative process. The latter paradigm also serves to maintain operational readiness and should be embraced during times with fewer-than-expected COVID-19 ETIs to ensure appropriate levels of preparedness during patient surge scenarios.[28]

With the rapid and often unpredictable progression of the COVID-19 pandemic, all frontline HCPs must be prepared for high-risk, high-stress procedures such as ETI. With the in situ simulation training, as described in our manuscript, we were able to achieve such preparedness. In addition, we were able to ensure ongoing high quality of the process by implementing real-time learning, appropriately revising pertinent (e.g., ETI) guidelines, and by providing HCPs with a realistic set of expectations for working with COVID-19 patients in respiratory distress. We believe that in situ simulation can be used to train HCPs involved with high-risk procedures and to efficiently delineate the process so that institutional guidelines and practice patterns can be optimized in the event of an emerging infectious disease such as COVID-19.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Chauhan V, Galwankar SC, Yellapu V, Perez-Figueroa IJ, Stawicki SP. State of the globe: The trials and tribulations of the COVID-19 pandemic: Separated but together, telemedicine revolution, frontline struggle against “Silent Hypoxia,” the relentless search for novel therapeutics and vaccines, and the daunting prospect of “COVIFLU”. J Glob Infect Dis 2020;12:39.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Stawicki SP, Jeanmonod R, Miller AC, Paladino L, Gaieski DF, Yaffee AQ, et al. The 2019-2020 novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic: A joint American College of Academic International medicine-world academic council of emergency medicine multidisciplinary COVID-19 working group consensus paper. J Glob Infect Dis 2020;12:47.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ong JJ, Bharatendu C, Goh Y, Tang JZ, Sooi KW, Tan YL, et al. Headaches associated with personal protective equipment – A cross-sectional study among frontline healthcare workers during COVID-19. Headache 2020;60:864-77.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sim MR. The COVID-19 pandemic: major risks to healthcare and other workers on the front line. Occup Environ Med 2020;77:281–282.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tsamakis K, Rizos E, Manolis AJ, Chaidou S, Kympouropoulos S, Spartalis E, et al. COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on mental health of healthcare professionals. Exp Ther Med 2020;19:3451-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ripp J, Peccoralo L, Charney D. Attending to the emotional well-being of the health care workforce in a New York City health system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Academic Medicine. 2020.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Paladino L, Sharpe RP, Galwankar SC, Sholevar F, Marchionni C, Papadimos TJ, et al. Reflections on the Ebola Public Health Emergency of International Concern, part 2: The unseen epidemic of posttraumatic stress among health-care personnel and survivors of the 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak. J Glob Infect Dis 2017;9:45-50.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Meng L, Qiu H, Wan L, Ai Y, Xue Z, Guo Q, et al. Intubation and ventilation amid the COVID-19 outbreak Wuhan's experience. Anesthesiology 2020;132:1317-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Luo M, Cao S, Wei L, Tang R, Hong S, Liu R, et al. Precautions for Intubating Patients with COVID-19. Anesthesiology 2020;132:1616-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Orser BA. Recommendations for endotracheal intubation of COVID-19 patients. Anesth Analg 2020;130:1109-10.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Lockhart SL, Duggan LV, Wax RS, Saad S, Grocott HP. Personal protective equipment (PPE) for both anesthesiologists and other airway managers: Principles and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Can J Anaesth 2020;23:1.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kearsley R. Intubation boxes for managing the airway in patients with COVID-19. Anaesthesia 2020;75:969.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Tsai P. Barrier shields: not just for intubations in today's COVID-19 world? Anesth Analg. 2020;131:e44–e45.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Vijayaraghavan S, Puthenveettil N. Aerosol box for protection during airway manipulation in covid-19 patients. Indian J Anaesth 2020;64:148.  Back to cited text no. 14
  [Full text]  
15.
Brewster DJ, Chrimes N, Do TB, Fraser K, Groombridge CJ, Higgs A, et al. Consensus statement: Safe Airway Society principles of airway management and tracheal intubation specific to the COVID-19 adult patient group. Med J Aust 2020;212:472-81.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Beitzke D, Salgado R, Francone M, Kreitner KF, Natale L, Bremerich J, Gutberlet M, Mousseaux E, Nikolaou K, Peebles C, Velthuis B. Cardiac imaging procedures and the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations of the European Society of Cardiovascular Radiology (ESCR). The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 2020;26:1-0.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Ling L, Joynt GM, Lipman J, Constantin JM, Joannes-Boyau O. COVID-19: A critical care perspective informed by lessons learnt from other viral epidemics. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2020;39:163-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Marcks V, Hayes K, Stawicki SP. Operating room trauma simulation: The St. Luke's University Health Network experience. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2020;10:4-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
  [Full text]  
19.
Hewlett BL, Hewlett BS. Providing care and facing death: Nursing during Ebola outbreaks in central Africa. J Transcult Nurs 2005;16:289-97.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Wong TW, Yau JK, Chan CL, Kwong RS, Ho SM, Lau CC, et al. The psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak on healthcare workers in emergency departments and how they cope. Eur J Emerg Med 2005;12:13-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Hall RC, Hall RC, Chapman MJ. The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak: Lessons hospitals and physicians can apply to future viral epidemics. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2008;30:446-52.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Belfroid E, van Steenbergen J, Timen A, Ellerbroek P, Huis A, Hulscher M. Preparedness and the importance of meeting the needs of healthcare workers: A qualitative study on Ebola. J Hosp Infect 2018;98:212-8.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Dieckmann P, Torgeirsen K, Qvindesland SA, Thomas L, Bushell V, Langli Ersdal H. The use of simulation to prepare and improve responses to infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19: Practical tips and resources from Norway, Denmark, and the UK. Adv Simul (Lond) 2020;5:3.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Zirkle M, Blum R, Raemer DB, Healy G, Roberson DW. Teaching emergency airway management using medical simulation: A pilot program. Laryngoscope 2005;115:495-500.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Hunt EA, Duval-Arnould JM, Nelson-McMillan KL, Bradshaw JH, Diener-West M, Perretta JS, et al. Pediatric resident resuscitation skills improve after “rapid cycle deliberate practice” training. Resuscitation 2014;85:945-51.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Francom G. Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design, by Jeroen JG van Merriënboer and Paul A. Kirschner. Tech Trends 2018;62:204-5.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Strosberg DS, Latchana N, Kindel TL, Swaroop M, Chaudhry UI, Noria SF, et al. Medical simulation and the surgical resident: Creating synergies through focus on education and morbidity reduction in general laparoscopy. Int J Academic Med 2017;3:90.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Stawicki SP, Habeeb K, Martin ND, O'Mara MS, Cipolla J, Evans DC, et al. A seven-center examination of the relationship between monthly volume and mortality in trauma: A hypothesis-generating study. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2019;45:281-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
   Introduction
    Simulation Exerc...
    Simulation Group...
    Additional Recom...
    Summary and Conc...
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed674    
    Printed15    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded21    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal