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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2020
Volume 10 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 159-223

Online since Tuesday, December 29, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

What's new in critical illness and injury science? Intravenous immunoglobulin for COVID-19 with severe or critical illness Highly accessed article p. 159
Andrew C Miller, Shobi Venkatachalam
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_192_20  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Fentanyl and clonidine as adjuncts to a mixture of local anesthetics in potentiating postoperative analgesia in supraclavicular block: A randomized controlled study p. 163
Anisha Puri, Gurchand Singh, Anita Madan
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_68_19  
Background: Brachial plexus block is popular for upper limb surgeries as it is effective for postoperative analgesia. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare fentanyl and clonidine as adjuncts to a mixture of local anesthetics in potentiating postoperative analgesia in the supraclavicular block. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 min were included and randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. In clonidine (C) group, patients received 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine + 20 ml of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:200,000) and 1 μg/kg clonidine diluted till 35 cc with normal saline. In fentanyl (F) group, patients received 10 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine + 20 ml of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:200,000) and 1 μg/kg fentanyl diluted till 35 cc with normal saline. Patients were observed for onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade, duration of analgesia, postoperative pain, and adverse effects. Results: The mean onset of sensory block was faster in Group F (8.43 ± 2.897 min) as compared to 13.17 ± 2.451 min in Group C. The difference between the two groups was statistically strongly significant (P < 0.0001). There was a significant reduction in the onset of motor block in Group F (14.67 ± 1.84 min) compared to (18.17 ± 2.45 min) Group C with P < 0.0001 (statistically strongly significant). There was a significant increase in the duration of analgesia in Group C (16.63 ± 2.04 h) compared to Group F (8.79 ± 1.50 h) with P < 0.0001. There was bradycardia (pulse did not fall below 60) in two patients of Group C (treated with atropine intravenous [i.v.]). Two patients of Group F complained of nausea and vomiting once in the early hours of surgery for which ondansetron i.v. was given. There were no significant side effects in either of the groups. Conclusion: Both clonidine and fentanyl establish a good safety profile. Fentanyl ensures a faster onset of sensory and motor blockade, while clonidine ensures a longer duration of sensory and motor blockade as well as prolonged analgesia.
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Clinical implications of serum myoglobin in trauma patients: A retrospective study from a level 1 trauma center p. 170
Khalid Ahmed, Husham Abdelrahman, Ayman El-Menyar, Mahmoud Saqr, Ashwin D Silva, Sherif M Alkahky, Jowhara Al Qahtani, Ahammed Mekkodathil, Hassan Al-Thani, Ruben Peralta
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_71_19  
Background: We aimed to study the clinical implication of high serum myoglobin levels in trauma patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from trauma patients who were admitted to a level 1 trauma center between January 2012 and December 2015. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for the optimum myoglobin cutoff plotted against hospital length of stay of >1 week. Patients were divided into two groups (Group 1; low vs. Group 2; high myoglobin), and a comparative analysis was performed. Results: There were 898 patients who met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 35.9 ± 14.6 years. Based on ROC, the myoglobin optimum cutoff was 1000 ng/ml (64% of patients were in Group 1 and 36% in Group 2). The mean myoglobin level was 328 ng/ml in patients with the Injury Severity Score (ISS) <15 versus 1202 ng/ml in patients with ISS ≥15 (P < 0.001). Patients in Group 2 had higher ISS (22.2 ± 10 vs. 18.8 ± 10), more musculoskeletal injuries (18.3% vs. 4.2%), more blood transfusion (74% vs. 39%), intubation (57% vs. 46.5%), and sepsis (12% vs. 7.3%). The length of hospital stays was significantly higher in Group 2, but mortality was comparable. High myoglobin levels had a crude odd ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval (1.470–3.184) for a longer hospital stay with a positive predictive value of 89% and a specificity of 77%. Conclusions: One-third of the admitted trauma patients have elevated serum myoglobin level, which is associated with the prolonged hospital stay. The discriminatory power of myoglobin value of 1000 in trauma is fair, and further prospective assessments are needed.
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Effect of using a head injury fast-track system on reducing the mortality rate among severe head injury patients in Southern Thailand: A retrospective study with historical control p. 177
Kanitha Arundon, Narumon Anumas, Phakawat Chunthong, Autthapol Cheevarungrod, Thanom Phibalsak, Apiradee Lim
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_92_19  
Context: Head injuries are the leading cause of traumatic morbidity and mortality. Timely proper management can reduce the mortality rate. Aims: This study aimed to examine the effects of a fast-track system on reducing head injury mortality using the data in Southern Thailand. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of data from the medical records of severe head injury patients admitted to Hatyai Hospital from October 2012 to May 2017. Subjects and Methods: The records of subjects were selected for participants aged more than 11 years, having Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <9, no injuries in other organs, and neither hypoxemia nor hypotension. A total of 193 participants fulfilling these criteria were analyzed. Of these, 108 participants were managed in the fast track. Statistical Analysis Used: The fast-track group was compared with normal track participants by using logistic regression after preliminary analysis to identify the risk factors using the Chi-squared tests. Results: After adjustment for confounders, namely acute subdural hematoma, linear skull fracture and diffuse brain injury, and mortality in the fast-track group (13%) was significantly lower than that in the nonfast track group (22.4%). Conclusions: Using the fast-track system can reduce mortality from severe head injuries and should be implemented in the health services system.
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Epidemiology and cost-analysis of emergency department patients treated following traffic accidents in Iran: A retrospective cross-sectional study p. 182
Anahita Behzadi, Mohsen Shahba, Sina Etemadi, Behzad Mohamadi, Mehran Karvar, Yahya Jafari, Marjan Hedayatipour
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_93_19  
Introduction: Epidemiological analysis of traffic accidents can provide information for future plans to lower the cost and burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs). This study was aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of patients with RTAs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of RTA patients presenting in 2016 to the Emergency Department at Shahid Bahonar Medical Education Center in Kerman, Iran. A checklist including variables such as age, sex, month, in which the patient referred, final outcome, overall cost and the site of injury used to collect data. The diagnostic criteria were in accordance to ICD 10. Results: Of the total of 3277 patients who were studied, 2713 (82.78%) were men and 564 (16.66%) were women. Most of the accidents occurred at the age group of 16–30 years and the average cost of treatment in the hospital was 2152.45 USD. The most affected area was the lower limb. The majority of accidents occurred in spring and summer. The mortality rate was (2.74%). Discussion: Injuries and deaths due to RTAs are a major public health problem, especially in young age groups. Therefore, more preventive programs targeting young adults should be considered to reduce the burden of RTAs. Conclusion: Epidemiology and cost analysis of results showed that men caused more accidents and costs burden for both health system and society. Considering they have a more share of activity, economy and workforce, it will cause more damage and adverse consequences for economy and social life of the society.
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Complications following chest tube insertion pre-and post-implementation of guidelines in patients with chest trauma: A retrospective, observational study p. 189
Ahmed El-Faramawy, Gaby Jabbour, Ibrahim Afifi, Husham Abdelrahman, Amjad S Qabbani, Mohammad Al Nobani, Ahammed A Mekkodathil, Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_98_19  
Background: The need to evacuate the chest after a penetrating wound was first recognized in the 18th century. Most thoracic injuries are treated with tube thoracostomy (TT) which refers to the insertion of a TT into the pleural cavity to drain air, blood, pus, or other fluids. However, TT has been challenged in the trauma care due to insertional, positional, or infective complications. Methods: A retrospective study of all trauma patients who had TT insertion from 2008 to 2014 was conducted based on the trauma registry data to describe patient characteristics, injury characteristics, management, and outcomes. The complication incidences per TT before (2008) and after (2009–2014) the implementation of standard protocol were compared. Results: During the study period, 804 patients were managed with 1004 TT procedures. The mean age was 34 years, and majority (91%) was males. Motor vehicle crash (43%) was the main mechanism of injury. Mean injury severity score was 22. The rib fractures (68%) were more frequent followed by pneumothorax (49%). Nearly 72% of patients received antibiotic coverage before insertion. The complications developed per TT reduced over the years from 2008 to 2014 (12.6% to 4.4%). The average complication per TT after the protocol implementation (2009–2014) reduced by 7% when compared to the duration before implementation (2008). Conclusions: The present study shows that standardized management of trauma patients who undergo TT results in a reduction in complications, helps improve patient flow, and ensures the proper management of resources in our high-volume trauma center.
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Tracheostomy in critically ill liver disease patients with coagulopathy: A retrospective study at a tertiary center p. 195
Vandana Saluja, Shilpa Tiwari, Lalita Gouri Mitra, Guresh Kumar, Rakhi Maiwall, V Rajan
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_106_19  
Introduction: Critically ill patients with liver disease commonly present to the intensive care unit (ICU) with need for prolonged ventilation, difficult weaning, and refractory coagulopathy. These patients experience both bleeding and thrombotic complications with a precariously balanced state of coagulopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess the bleeding complications of tracheostomy in critically ill patients with liver disease. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in liver ICU of a tertiary teaching institute. Medical records were analyzed to assess postprocedure complication rate among 73 critically ill liver disease patients who had undergone tracheostomy during the period of October 2017 to September 2018. Results: Ten out of 73 patients (13%) required transfusion of blood products after 12 h of procedure, despite thromboelastography (TEG)-based correction prior to procedure. Of these, 7 patients (9%) underwent surgical tracheostomy (ST) and three patients (4%) underwent percutaneous tracheostomy. Statistically no significant difference in bleeding was seen among the two groups, but a rising trend was seen with the ST group (P = 0.52). None of the patients experienced procedure-related pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema, as observed in the chest X-ray. Conclusion: We conclude that coagulopathy should not be deterrence for the performance of tracheostomy in critically ill patients with liver disease. Adequate clotting support guided by the global tests of coagulation, such as TEG, ensures lesser incidence of bleeding.
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Intermittent gastric feeds lower insulin requirements without worsening dysglycemia: A pilot randomized crossover trial p. 200
Tyson J Sjulin, Richard J Strilka, Nikhil A Huprikar, Lisa A Cameron, Parker W Woody, Scott B Armen
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_112_19  
Introduction: We hypothesized that critically ill medical patients would require less insulin when fed intermittently. Methods: First, 26 patients were randomized to receive intermittent or continuous gastric feeds. Once at goal nutrition, data were collected for the first 4-hr data collection period. Next, the enteral feed type was switched, goal nutrition was repeated, and a second 4-h data collection period was completed. The primary endpoint was the total amount of insulin infused; secondary endpoints were glucose concentration mean, maximum, minimum, and standard deviation, as well as episodes of hypoglycemia. Results: Sixteen of the 26 patients successfully completed the protocol. One patient experienced a large, rapid, and sustained decline in insulin requirement from liver failure, creating a bias of lesser insulin in the intermittent arm; this patient was removed from the analysis. For the remaining 15 patients, the average total amount of insulin infused was 1.4 U/patient/h less following intermittent feeds: P =0.027, 95% confidence interval (0.02, 11.17), and effect size 0.6. Secondary endpoints were statistically similar. Conclusions: Critically ill medical patients who require an insulin infusion have a reduced insulin requirement when fed intermittently, whereas dysglycemia metrics are not adversely affected. A larger clinical study is required to confirm these findings.
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Protocolized ventilator weaning verses usual care: A randomized controlled trial p. 206
Amir Vahedian-Azimi, Farshid Rahimi Bashar, Mohammad A Jafarabadi, Jennifer Stahl, Andrew C Miller
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_29_20  
Background: Protocolized ventilator weaning (PW) strategies utilizing spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) result in shorter intubation duration and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS). We compared respiratory therapy (RT)-driven PW versus usual care (UC) as it pertains to physiologic respiratory parameters, intubation duration, extubation success/reintubation rates, and ICU LOS. Methods: prospective, multicentric, randomized controlled trial was performed in closed medical and surgical ICUs with 24/7 in-house intensivist coverage at six academic medical centers in a resource-limited setting from October 18, 2007, to May 03, 2014. Extubation readiness was determined by the attending physician (UC) or the respiratory therapist (PW) using predefined criteria and SBT. Physiologic variables, serial blood gas measurements, and weaning indices were assessed including the Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (RSBI), negative inspiratory force (NIF), occlusion pressure (P0.1), and dynamic and static compliance (Cdyn and Cs). Results: total of 5502 patients were randomized (PW 2787; UC 2715), of which 167 patients died without ventilator weaning (PW 90; UC 77) and 645 patients were excluded (PW 365; UC 280). Finally, a total of 4200 patients were analyzed (PW 2075; UC 2125). The PW group displayed improvements in minute ventilation (P < 0.001), Cs and Cdyn (both P < 0.05), P0.1 (P < 0.001), NIF (P < 0.001), and RSBI (P < 0.001). Early re-intubation (≤48 h) rates were lower in the PW group (16.7% vs. 24.8%; P < 0.0001), as were late re-intubation rates (5.2% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.0001). Intubation duration was longer in the PW group (P < 0.001), however, hospital LOS was shorter (P < 0.001). Mortality was unchanged (P = 0.19). Conclusion: PW with RT-driven extubation decisions is safe, effective, and associated with decreased re-intubation (early and late), shorter hospital stays, increased intubation duration (statistically but not clinically significant), and unchanged in-patient mortality.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Use of video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery in the removal of an intrathoracic bullet: A case report p. 213
Mustafa Erman Dorterler, Mehmet Cakmak, Tansel Gunendi, Osman Hakan Kocaman, Mehmet Emin Boleken
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_27_19  
The use of video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) as a minimally invasive surgical technique in many lung and pleural diseases is well-established. However, the efficacy of VATS in the removal of retained intrathoracic foreign bodies is unclear. Here, we report the use of VATS in the successful removal of an intrathoracic bullet from a 7-year-old patient.
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Use of CytoSorb® as a therapeutic option in a critically ill patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: A case report p. 216
Pedja Kovacevic, Boris Tomic, Tijana Kovacevic, Sasa Dragic
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_56_20  
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is an acute inflammatory lung process, which leads to protein-rich nonhydrostatic pulmonary edema, refractory hypoxemia, and lung “stiffness”. There are a number of therapies that are currently being investigated in the treatment of sepsis; one of the most promising treatment options at this moment is cytokine removal by hemoperfusion (CytoSorb®). We present the case of a 29-year-old male patient who was admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit in a state of multiple organ dysfunction and massive bilateral pneumonia caused by influenza type A. The patient was healthy before hospital admission. Due to acute respiratory failure and altered state of consciousness, the patient was intubated using analgosedation and connected to a controlled mechanical ventilation mode immediately after admission. The initial computed tomography scan showed massive bilateral pneumonia, and few days later, the patient's condition progressively worsened and he developed signs of multiorgan failure. Given the patient's progressing hemodynamic instability and uncontrolled inflammatory response, a CytoSorb® adsorber was added into the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit. The combination of pharmacotherapy, supportive measures, and application of CytoSorb® resulted with complete recovery of the patient (hemodynamic stability improved as evidenced by decreased vasopressor requirements).
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Periapical abscess progressing to parotitis and descending necrotizing mediastinitis with thoracic abscess in a patient on etanercept: A case report p. 220
Ian Staten, An Truong, Andrew C Miller
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_75_20  
Patients on Type 2 biologics, such as etanercept, are at increased risk for aggressive infections. This may be further exacerbated by concomitant systemic corticosteroid use or comorbidities such as diabetes. We report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis on etanercept with poor dentition and periodontal disease, who developed parotitis with peritonsillar abscess and descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) with periaortic abscess arising from a periapical abscess. Morbidity and mortality of such infections is high. A multimodal assessment and treatment team is required to optimize patient survival and outcomes. This manuscript discusses the diagnostic and treatment challenges of DNM of immunocompromised patients.
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